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Ocean Acidification

Geographic Extent

Geographic Extent
Scientific Basis
Management Decisions & Authorities, Recent Developments and Current Status
Processes and Effects

There is a natural CO2 flux from volcanic vents and areas of higher heat flow which accounts for less than 0.5% of the carbon budgets anthropogenic emissions, but they can still alter local ocean chemistry.


Area’s abundant in marine CO2 vents are: the Mediterranean with concentrations around Italy and Greece, where discharge from the vents usually contain ~1-2% hydrogen sulphide.





Change in sea surface carbonate ion (CO32-) concentration from the pre-industrial period (1700s) to the present day (1990s).


The aragonite saturation state in the year 2100
a, surface map; b, Atlantic; and c, Pacific zonal averages.(Orr, 2005)

Geography of The Seas 2009
- Allison Walsh & Tyler Power

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